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Two of the main activities of RILEM Technical Committee 208-HFC Subcommittee 2 were the preparation and publication of the state-of-the-art report on durability of strain hardening cement-based composites (SHCC), and the performance of comparative laboratory testing on SHCC. In this paper the comparative mechanical tests are reported, as performed in laboratories of five participating institutions. The purpose was to investigate and compare the crack patterns in terms of crack widths and spacing, and subsequently to make recommendations for a suitable test setup and procedure towards characterizing cracking in this class of materials. Such standardized procedures are required for future systematic and objective research towards durability of these materials in their in-service conditions, i.e. their resistance to deterioration processes in the cracked state. Standardized test procedures are also required for durability testing and guidelines for structural design with SHCC, which is the focus of follow-up committee activity in TC 240-FDS.

Composite 2016 Free Download With Crack

In order to establish reliable durability test procedures for strain hardening cement-based composites (SHCC) in the cracked state, a consistent method of mechanical loading is imperative. The comparison of pre-cracking procedures for subsequent or simultaneous durability tests on SHCC specimens is the main objective of the work reported in this paper. Cracks in cement-based composites serve as access for ingress of materials associated with deterioration processes. Whilst the controlled crack width in SHCC is believed to be beneficial, leading to pseudo-strain hardening, associated ductility and toughness, the implications of multiple cracks for deterioration processes must be understood, modelled and verified. This paper reports on a comparative test series on SHCC by five laboratories participating in the RILEM Technical Committee 208-HFC, Subcommittee 2: Durability (TC208-SC2). The test series was performed to compare the SHCC tensile test results from laboratories with established SHCC test facilities, in order to identify the test procedure, specimen size and shape, crack observation method and crack distribution characterization procedure that produce the most consistent crack results.

Several researchers have reported multiple crack formation under direct tensile load and crack width and/or spacing measurements in SHCC (e.g. [1, 8, 11]), in textile reinforced concrete (e.g. [6]) and ultra-high strength fibre reinforced composites [16]. The importance of cracks for ingress of water and deleterious substances has been illustrated by various of these authors and by [17]. Different specimen shapes and sizes as well as boundary conditions have been used by the respective authors. This paper compares results on crack width measurements performed by five laboratories in a comparative test series, in order to identify the most suitable specimen size and test setup, towards standardisation of crack formation and durability test procedures. Assessment criteria for the test procedures were their practicability, an appropriate repeatability of the results, the reusability of the cracked specimens for durability tests and, most importantly, the generation of crack patterns that resemble those being formed in field applications of SHCC.

Finally, two types of SHCC were tested. Whilst all five laboratories tested fine-grained SHCC, containing sand aggregate with maximum particle size less than 0.3 mm, Laboratories 1, 3 and 5 also prepared and tested coarse sand SHCC. The purpose was to develop SHCC from naturally available sand, whilst still achieving crack control and strain hardening up to at least 1 % in tensile strain.

Standard mix proportions were agreed upon based on past experiences of the respective participants and locally available materials, allowing minor adjustments to ensure that multiple cracking could be achieved. Note that no ingredient materials were distributed amongst the laboratories, but each made use of that which is available in their respective laboratories and industries. PVA fibres, type REC15 with length (L f) 12 mm and diameter (d f) 0.04 mm were obtained from Kuraray, Japan. Laboratory L1 (Leipzig) used the same fibre type, but with fibre length 8 mm.

Non-rotational boundaries are believed to introduce to a large extent uniform strain distributions in cross-sections of a specimen in a tensile test. The influence of such non-rotational and rotational boundaries on the results of tensile tests specifically on SHCC was studied by [4, 5], who point out that rotational boundaries allow increased deformation and crack formation on the side of the specimen where the first crack appears, which may lead to lower first crack strength, ultimate strength and ultimate strain deducted from tests with rotational boundaries. To study the influence of end conditions on SHCC, alternate boundary conditions were applied by the participating laboratories according to their existing tensile test facilities at the time.

Different crack measurement methods were employed by the various laboratories. In L1, L3 and L5 digital image processing (DIP) was conducted by using high resolution cameras and standard commercial digital image processing software. In Leipzig (L1), the first series crack measurement (series FS1 and CS1) was done with low resolution, in the order of 50 μm. In series FS2 of this laboratory, an improved resolution of 10 μm has been achieved. In Qingdao (L2) 2D photos were taken with a resolution of approximately 10 μm. In Stellenbosch (L4), 3D Aramis digital image correlation (DIC) was used with a 10 μm resolution. Hence, in Laboratories L1 (series FS2), L2, L3, L4 and L5 approximately the same resolution of about 10 μm was achieved. The various equipment and setups are illustrated in Fig. 2.

Contactless measurement of crack widths and patterns on SHCC specimens by photogrammetric analysis has been described in recent literature. High resolution digital images of cracked specimens are used in combination with software to measure crack widths in DIP [12]. In DIC, three-dimensional particle tracking and inter-particle deformation calculations are performed by analysis of sequential digital images. Through calibration, inter-particle deformations exceeding expected elastic deformation are defined as cracks, the widths of which are approximated as total minus elastic deformation [1].

Figure 4 shows the average crack width evolution with average tensile strain as determined on the various specimens and gauge lengths in the participating laboratories. The results are summarized in Table 4, where also the coefficients of variation (CoV) are included. The different crack measurement resolution (50 μm) used in Laboratory L1 for series FS1 and CS1 appears to have led to significantly larger crack width observation data, as shown in Fig. 4a for Leipzig FS1. Clearly, Leipzig FS2, obtained with finer resolution (10 μm) is in closer agreement with the other laboratories.

The gauge length ranging from 80 to 120 mm in these comparative tests appeared to have allowed multiple crack formation. In only one set of results, i.e. from L3, a larger cross section (30 mm 30 mm) was accompanied by the minimum gauge length of 80 mm. Nevertheless low variability in crack data was found, although cracks predominantly formed in the central part, as seen in Fig. 2 for L3. In the L1 specimens (see Fig. 2), the 120 mm gauge length allowed a longer central portion to form saturated multiple cracking (zones II and III in Fig. 2). Thus, durability test samples taken from a larger length may be more representative for the durability of actual field SHCC where uniformly spaced cracks may form. A specimen with a longer central part of uniform section may also allow taking two samples from each dumbbell specimen. Thus, a gauge length of 120 mm is recommended.

For crack width characterization, either DIP or DIC is recommended, but a resolution of at most 10 μm must be used to avoid significant errors. A useful presentation of crack width data is shown in Fig. 6, in the form of crack width histograms. This representation is believed to allow eventual linking of crack distributions with deterioration resistance. In addition, average crack widths per set, standard deviation, maximum crack widths as well as average crack spacing must be reported, although all these values might be derived from the histogram data with reasonable accuracy. The durability of cracked SHCC as dependent on the crack pattern is a major subject of investigation for RILEM Technical Committee 240-FDS.

The results of a comparative tensile test series performed by five laboratories have been reported here, with the purpose of identifying a consistent method of pre-cracking SHCC specimens for durability testing. The results indicate various similarities in the data, despite varying local ingredient materials, test procedures, specimen sizes and crack characterisation methods. Keeping in mind that the laboratories were reasonably experienced in performing the tensile tests on SHCC, the results have been interpreted in terms of physical parameters such as specimen geometrical size, test boundary conditions and observation resolution rather than human execution uncertainties. It is acknowledged that this is an assumption.

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